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Villa, La mitologia e le sue fonti nascoste, in il Frontespizio, n. Attraverso processi di analogia sia visiva sia sonora essi aprirono la via alla creazione di inedite relazioni di senso fra parole anche lontane grazie a una vicinanza fonetica inizialmente non immaginata. Il Verri: Guest edited by Tagliaferri, this monographic issue dedicated to the work of Emilio Villa and published in contains 10 essays and a handful of previously unpublished texts. Principle among them is Villa s introduction to his translation of Genesis followed by a passage from the work itself.
Many scholars allow their biases to influence their translations and subsequent 57 G. Renello, Il labirinto della Sibilla, in Segnare un secolo etc. Villa, Introduzione a Genesi, in il Verri, n. The excerpt from Villa s biblical translation included in il Verri is only in partial form. After comparing it with the original manuscript, I found it strange that the editor opted to leave out the title of the passage, which right away attests to the singularity of Villa s translation in respect to others: what is typically rendered as the Fall of man, has been translated by Villa as L Impresa del Rettile [The Reptile s Endeavor].
Not only does this title help explain many of the philological notes Villa places alongside the text, but also demonstrates his choice to highlight the serpent as the subject of the passage instead of man.
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While Villa had published the former in in a rare edition that included watercolors by the artist Nuvolo, it was not reproduced in Tagliaferri s Opere poetiche; the original edition also includes a poem in Italian and French, as well as another in Latin and French, both of which have been reproduced and partially translated for the present volume. The latter collection was never published and comes from Villa s papers held at the Panizzi library.
These four short poems are a sort of etymological exploration in verse regarding the four seasons. For the sake of space, they have not been translated for this volume. In general, the essays are rather short about 5 to 6 pages each and, for the most part, their analyses of the poet s work remain on the surface. Nanni Cagnone s Emilio, al contrario is more a personal memoir than a critical exegesis. The results of Villa s recourse to ancient languages are also found in his Italian works, where neologisms, Latinisms, Grecisms and maybe even Akkadicisms and Sumerianisms run amok.
All of which creates a sort of hybridity within the Italian poems themselves. In other words, in order to follow Cortellessa s essay one must be first be an expert on Villa and the art world at large. Milli Graffi s contribution seems even more haphazard as it opens without any sort of thesis statement to tie her essay together.
Its three pages consist of more examples than 59 C. Voce, Il transito provocato delle idee antiche. Appunti sulla poesia di Emilio Villa Available online at: liberinversi. After Tagliaferri s introductions to the primary texts and Bello-Minciacchi s essay on Villa s Latin, the only thing left in this monographic issue is Andrea Zanzotto s Come sta Villa. Despite being the shortest of all the essays two pages it is packed with a number of useful observations. We will cite and analyze Zanzotto s essay at length in our section concerning Villa within the landscape of the 20 th century.
Zanzotto, Come sta Villa?
Uomini e idee: Edited by Luciano Caruso and Stelio Maria Martini, this monographic issue dedicated to the work of Emilio Villa precedes that of il Verri by twenty-three years. The volume also proves important for the many previously unpublished works it collects, which, to the best of my knowledge, have not been reprinted in any other venues to date. For example, the selections of Villa s visual art are much more expansive, and consequently much more useful to future critics, than those dotting the pages of Tagliaferri s later Opere e documenti.
Regarding the selections of verse, we should say that this volume, more than any before or after it, paints the most faithful picture of Villa s work from the late 60s, for the many previously unpublished pieces demonstrate that Villa did not abandon the Italian language, but rather continued to write in it while simultaneously experimenting in French.
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Luciano Caruso authored a rather polemic review of Tagliaferri s exhibition of Villa s visual art, which caused not only his collaborations with Villa, but also the holdings of Villa material in his archive in Florence, to be shunned from these editions, as well as later exhibitions curated by Tagliaferri, such as that held in Reggio Emilia in. For example, the title of the long poem in Italian Comizio is preceded by a da, implying that what appears on the page is merely a selection from that poem and that there exists a longer version.
It seems we are splitting hairs, but the fact that the da is missing from Tagliaferri s later anthological choices can mislead readers. In fact, it was only until I found a copy of Uomini e idee, after years of searching, that I was finally put on the path to track down the full version of Comizio.
While we are on the topic, we must call attention to another text included in this volume that Tagliaferri later deemed unattributable to Villa s hand. Although I will publish a complete essay on this matter elsewhere, 66 I would like to state here that the manuscript not only unmistakably shows Villa s handwriting but his verses also contain themes similar to those of his other poems. Furthermore, the process at large is typical of Villa: this work holding many affinities with the aforementioned Geometria reformata, where Villa also wrote verse between the visual works of Claudio Parmiggiani.
Poeta e scrittore, etc. Why would two artists, both of whom were renowned for appropriating and expanding upon the work of others, simply copy? However, there are two in particular worth mentioning: Quelques remarques sur la langue villaine by Francis Darbousset and Ivos Margoni and Cosmogonia pubblica e privata in Emilio Villa by Adriano Spatola. Unlike Jacqueline Risset s Come un negro di Dakkar in il Verri, this investigation into Villa s French compares his macaronic version of the language to a standard French. Similar to the essay penned by Andrea Zanzotto in il Verri, Adriano Spatola s contribution to Uomini e idee also serves as an example of an experimental poet reading the work of another and is equally rich with insight.
For example, in the span of a few sentences, he lists the principle techniques Villa employs in order to disrupt a text: Queste interruzioni sono di vario tipo: parentetiche, semantiche, visuali, o semplicemente ottenute con la sostituzione di una lingua a un altra, senza limiti all estensione del campo delle lingue utilizzabili. Darbousset and I. The best way to do this is to concentrate on the linguistic process that allows for the creation of new meaning, not the meaning itself. These linguistic analyses allow one to enjoy the process and not the outcome, and can be applied to anything Villa did, no matter the sphere of activity or the language employed.
Like Melville s novel, this is open-ended approach will also be adopted here, for it is the only one allowing for the pursuit of the White Whale to continue another day. Spatola, Cosmogonia pubblica e privata, in Uomini e Idee, etc. One of the critical tools that helps us to probe this situation is undoubtedly the replacement of the rather general term of experimentalism with that of research poetry, which, in its specificity, promotes an expression based on the elaboration, investigation, or verification of the possibilities and qualities of language.
In the case of Emilio Villa, it is not only a matter of discovering a talent that was lost, marginalized, or even ignored over the years, but also of acknowledging a presence so powerful that, when inserted into that landscape, disrupts all its coordinates. In compiling their anthology of 20 th century Italian poetry, Luigi Ballerini and Beppe Cavatorta adopted Muzzioli s term as a guiding principle for their selections. A discussion of the implications of using such a term to describe the poetry of the Novecento can be found in their introduction to the first tome of Those who from afar look like flies forthcoming with University of Toronto Press.
In the 30s and 40s, as the Hermetics composed solipsistic verses, Villa was working on eliminating the authorial presence from his poetry, in order to free its language of biographical obstructions. In the 50s, while Pasolini started the polemic regarding the term experimentalism, Villa s Oramai and E ma dopo already displayed the techniques of a sophisticated research poetry.
Many of the stylistic innovations adopted by the Novissimi in the 60s can already be found in the compositions written by Villa in the 50s, see Comizio , Imprimatur, or 17 variazioni discussed below. Villa does not fit in any of the poetic categories usually employed to describe the Novecento, and this in part explains the absence Zanzotto mentions. However, we must also consider the fact that in a century characterized by so many isms and artistic currents, groups and factions, Villa always remained fiercely independent, always refusing to join in.
Consequently, he was ostracized by the representatives of mainstream culture and his own disgruntled peers. Villa s work as a poet stems from his erudition as a scholar and translator of ancient languages; his aim was to create a mythical or ancient present through the language of poetry. And this is what Zanzotto meant by stating that Villa s inapproachability was due to the fact that 71 A.
These characteristics make Villa s style one of the best examples of that research poetry we mentioned earlier. In trying to place his work within the galaxy of research poetry, we can not remain within the confines of Italy, but instead must branch out to include the poetic scenes of Brazil and the United States. The best place to start is with T. Eliot and Ezra Pound, the two giants of modernism who have influenced poets throughout the western hemisphere and in Italy in particular.
Both Eliot and Pound turned to other traditions in the 20 th Century. More specifically, they used early Italian literature, mainly the verse of Dante and Cavalcanti, to help resuscitate the language of poetry in their present. However, we must right away make a crucial distinction between their two poetics: while one reanimates the past in the present, the other reanimates the present through the past.
For example, T.
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Eliot absorbs citations from the Divine Comedy to create a collage in which the content of Dante s work takes on new meaning within a modern context: A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, This operation also creates a sort of reciprocity between the traditional and contemporary works, one expanding upon the meaning of the other, in a way that readers of Eliot may now view Dante s own passage of the Inferno through a new lens. Pound, on the other hand, much like Villa in his own right, besides being an avid reader of this early Italian tradition, was also its translator.
In scrutinizing every word of these texts, Pound gained an intimate knowledge of the formal techniques they employed; in fact, his rendering of Cavalcanti s verse are phenomenal not so much for the meaning that comes across in Pound s English, but more so for his ability to bend English syntax and morphology to mirror Cavalcanti s innovations in these areas. Pound also knew that Cavalcanti s verse relied upon a constructed ambiguity in order to constantly produce meaning 73, and thus focused more on the tools offered by the target language, sometimes even at the risk of sacrificing the referent.
And here, we return once again to our distinction between the poets who are interested in the meaning signification and those who are interested more in the process behind the creation of that meaning the construction of the signifier. While Eliot cites and re-contextualizes to expand 72 T. Speaking of Donna mi prega, in fact, he states that The non razionale ma che si sente is for the experiment, it is against the tyranny of the syllogism, blinding and obscurantist p.
That is to say that Cavalcanti s complex syntax is a deliberate stylistic tool intended to break the tyranny of the syllogism. While the syllogism closes the door on a particular discourse, a constructed ambiguity leaves it open, allowing for discourse to continue indefinitely. Therefore as both a translator of earlier traditions and a poet who draws upon their techniques to resuscitate modern language, we can say that Pound, much more than Eliot, can be seen as at least a partial forerunner of Villa.